Old New Year: Holiday History
ОThe new year in Russia is accepted for a long time and with a scope - in January we rest for more than a week. However, the festive mood is preserved after the end of the official vacation, because on the night of January 13-24, the whole country celebrates the old new year. About when and how a holiday with such an controversial name appeared, "Culture.RF" says.
New Year's pre-revolutionary postcard. Russia, until 1917.
The old new year came to our culture along with the old style of the summer.
In 1918, the Bolshevik government decided to change the calendar. Tsarist Russia lived in the Julian calendar, and Europe - in the Grigorian. The first was created in the Roman Empire and was based on ancient Egyptian astronomy. The Grigorian calendar was more accurate, it was created in the XVI century, taking into account the latest knowledge about the device of the Universe. The difference between two calculus systems was 13 days and created inconvenience to conduct international political and economic affairs and led to funny incidents in everyday life. For example, by dates on postage stamps, it was out that the telegram was obtained in Europe a few days earlier than sent in Russia.
The transition to the Western European calendar occurred on February 14, 1918. According to the Decree, the main goal of the whole project was "the establishment in Russia the same with almost all cultural peoples of calculus."
An unusual holiday appeared - the old new year, that is, the New Year on the old style, which was not forgotten by the people. However, the old new year was celebrated not as large as night from December 31 to January 1.
The Russian clergy did not agree with the transition to a new style and did not refuse Julian calendar. But it was not so important for the Bolsheviks who had already signed the decree on the church separation from the state and school from the church. Old style became unofficial.
Today, the Russian Orthodox Church still uses the Julian calendar. Therefore, Christmas in our country is celebrated on January 7, and in Catholic states - December 25th. New Year, or rather the "Novolety", the Orthodox Church celebrates September 14 (on September 1, according to the old style) - not from the Nativity of Christ, but from the creation of the world. In the period of the secular New Year holidays, believers hold the christmas post.
Directly on January 1, commemorate the holy martyr of vonifati, who should pray to get rid of drunkenness (demise of wine).
Contrary to popular belief, the tradition of celebrating the old new year exists not only in our country. There are similar holidays in the countries of the former USSR, as well as in Greece, Serbia, Montenegro, Algeria, Tunisia and many other countries. In all states, the appearance of an unusual date is associated with transitions to different calendars, but in each country there are traditions. In German-speaking regions of Switzerland, for example, on January 13, the old day of St. Sylvester is celebrated, dress up in masquerade costumes and congratulate each other with the New Year. In Macedonia, carnavals are satisfied with the New Year on the old calendar. There is an analogue of our holiday in Wales - Hen Galan festival. He also means the new year on the Julian calendar, and on this day children can "range" - walk home and get sweet gifts.
In Russia, the old new year on statistics is celebrated about half of the country's population, going to the festive table. And a number of museums and cultural organizations devotes thematic exhibitions to the holiday.
Never thought about the "Old New Year". They just celebrated from 13 to 14. I adopted it from my parents. And they are from their own. It was just accepted.
It seems that there was once another new year, in legends. But no one remembers, eat a cake silently. And so now for 102 years.
In general, I did not think. Until I came across the Bolshevik documents. And I got "Decree on the transition to the Western European calendar" of January 26, 1918.
Before the revolution, to the Soviets, Russia lived in the Julian calendar. And all the developed countries of the old and new world lived on the Gregorian calendar of the years 300 as.
Initially, everyone lived on the Julian calendar, but since he was not very designed very accurately, then over time, the calendar stopped the coincidence with the time of the year. And Easter, an important holiday, over time ceased to match the day of spring equinox. In 1582, Papa Gregory offered a new calendar who was more accurate.
Some believers, as at all times, considered it a great plot. Where without it. If Spain, Portugal and Italy moved almost immediately to a new calendar, then Germany only in 1700, and England in 1752. And the Orthodox countries kept until the latter. Russia, including.
And in 1918, workers and peasants wanted to live on one calendar with the Western European world. So they called Grigorian calendar. The church was abolished, the people did not resist.
"After January 31, 1918, the next day is considered not 1 February, and 14 ... ". That's how it was drawn up 13 days, the holidays changed and healed in a new one. More than a hundred years passed, and the former new year remembers, celebrate.
Why did we celebrate this old new year, I do not understand))
Do you celebrate the old new year and why?
Check like, subscribe! Discuss!
Links: http: //www.libussr.ru/doc_ussr/ussr_199.htmhtttps: //www.history.com/news/6-Things-You-May-Not-Know-Bout-The-Gregorian-Calendar
Old New Year is a unique holiday on our expanses. Even his name puts foreigners to the deadlock by such a combination of contradictory concepts as the old and at the same time a new year. On the eve of this amazing event, remember the story, and also why the old new year received such a name.
Old New Year: Date, Holiday Story
This rare historical phenomenon is obliged to the inconsistency of the Julian and Gregorian calendar. As a result of overcoming the gap of the dates between them, the new year arose on the old style. That's what is known about him:
The history of the old new year
In Russia before the revolution, the Souliscovers were conducted on the Julian calendar, in other countries - in the Grigorian. The gap between them was 13 days, which created many inconveniences.
It happened, because the Orthodox Church did not recognize the new calendar. Orthodoxy was in the Russian Empire state religion, therefore the civil calendar remained old, Julian.
The decree of the Soviet power in January 1918 the church was separated from the state, and then the difference in calendars was eliminated. Historically, it happened that immediately after January 31 came on February 14, that is, days from the first to thirteenth of February 1918 there was no country in the calendar. There were such concepts as a new style, corresponding to the Grigorian calendar, and the old - Juliansky.
But the Orthodox Church did not go to a new calendar. All church dates are celebrated at the same time. By tradition, the New Year holidays fell after Christmas, before which was a strict post.
The new year on a new calendar was a week before the Christmas holidays, so for many Christians became impossible abundant feast. But they could take the soul when the old new year comes.
That's what is an old new year and why this holiday was not forgotten and does not lose its meaning. In a number of other winter holidays, he turned out to be the youngest - he is a little more than 100 years old.
Old New Year: number
According to the old style, the new year comes on the night of January 13-14. He became an informal holiday in all countries where Christmas is celebrated on January 7:
- In the former Soviet republics, including in Kazakhstan.
- In Serbia and Montenegro, this is the Serbian New Year and the day off.
- In some cantons of Switzerland, where there is a folk rejection of a new calendar.
- In the north of Africa, Berbers meet the new year on January 12 in their calendar.
- In foreign countries, where a significant number of emigrants from the USSR.
Everyone else is joined to believers, because many want to extend the charm of your loved one, but note it without unnecessary fuss.
Old New Year: Traditions and features
On the eve of the holiday, let me celebrate the old new year. Traditions arose according to historical standards quite recently. And they reflected other holidays of the Orthodox calendar, dropping out these days:
- Day of Melania Romans - January 13th.
- Vasiliev Day (January 14) in honor of the Christian writer and the theologian Vasily the Great. He is considered a patron of farmers and pigs.
Such customs are associated with the old New Year:
According to the people's calendar, this evening is January 13 - the eve of the old New Year. It has many titles in different areas: Vasilyev Evening, oxen, etc.
For the evening, they were jammed in festive clothes, which was reflected in the saying: "Dresses like Malania for a wedding."
For dinner, to spend the old year, they prepared a rich feast, so they called it a "generous evening." People believed: the richer the table, the prospecting the coming year will be.
Traditional were such dishes:
- Fried piglet as a symbol of the fertility of livestock and fertility of the Earth;
- meat in all kinds, including sausages;
- A variety of pies and pancakes.
The abundance of food in a generous evening was equated to future profit in the farm. But there was a belief that it is impossible to prepare dishes from birds and fish on the table, otherwise happiness will fly away or will fall out.
The evening often lasted by bush. The groups of young people and children solemnly managed neighbors and relatives, the songs were magnified by the masters, wished well-being to all family members. Immediately played cheerful comic scenes.
This rite is traditional for Vasilyeva Day - an old agricultural holiday. On the morning of January 14, children (boys) and young people began to go through the courtyards, shook the red corners in them, courtyards. At the same time, they sentenced: "I sow, sow, congratulations on the New Year!"
Such symbolic seating should bring yield yield to the peasants and well-being in the house. In gratitude for this guests received hotels and gifts.
The grain that was crushed - rye, wheat, barley - collected and fed a poultry.
In the afternoon, a rich feast continued:
- The main dish was wheat porridge with meat and lard;
- Dumplings were served, among which came the "surprises". It could be coins, peppers, beans, dill - everything had some kind of conditional importance: to wealth, to sweet or bitter life, to health.
After a common feast, they asked for forgiveness from those present for possible resentments. So, in harmony with loved ones, the new year begins.
Turning to the old new year
As a significant holiday, this also has been around the signs, beliefs and rituals:
- It is impossible to clean the house on this day in order not to lose goodness.
- It is impossible to borrow or give money in debt.
- Bad sign - celebrate exclusively in the women's company. These women ordered themselves to loneliness.
- If the morning first in the house will enter a man or boy from a large family, a good note for people. The visit of women was not welcomed, it was preparing a arid year and even hunger.
The shields continued with entertainment. Divination for the future or on the groom on this day are considered the most truth - all the maps of fate open.
This holiday fell harmoniously in a series of winter celebrations and softy days. Remember traditions and congratulate relatives and friends with the upcoming Old New Year - this is another opportunity to wish them good and good luck.
Original Articles: https://www.nur.kz/fakty-i-layfhaki/1892900-staryj-novyj-god-data-istoria-tradicii-prazdnika/
On the night of January 13-14, there is one unofficial holiday under an unusual name in Russia. Old New Year, though not a reason for the day off or red calendar day, but marks Russians, and federal television channels actively repeat their New Year's ethers. However, far from everyone knows that in fact the old New Year is a historic holiday formed by the "fault" of the discrepancy between the old and new calendar. Ivbg.ru will tell you what is for the holiday and why we love him so much to celebrate, let and formally
How and when did the holiday appear?
At the very end of the 15th century (in 1492) in Russia officially determined the date of the new year. This date was September 1 and lasted in my new "post" a little more than two centuries. Changes made a great reformer Peter first, when in 1700 he issued a decree on the beginning of a new summer since January 1. According to the "New Style" on January 1 was the fourteenth number.
By the beginning of the twentieth century, the power of the immutors seriously thought to move from the morally obsolete Juliansky to the Gregorian calendar, which was successful and successfully used in Europe. So it happened: in 1918, the decree of the Council of People's Commissars was carried out by his law a long-standing dream of the people and officially translated the summer in the country to the Gregorian version of the calendar, which was also called a simple "new style". Julian remained in the past, so "according to the old style" on January 14, in the current position, it would have coincided with the first day of the year. It was 1918 that the decision of the Council of People's Commissars can Count the birthday of the holiday called the old New Year.
Where else, except for Russia, it is customary to celebrate the old new year?
Interestingly, we told the story of the appearance of an informal holiday only in Russia, but they celebrate it outside the CIS. Despite the seemingly obvious difficulty of translating, with the understanding of the essence of this holiday by foreigners, the old new year is somehow noted and mention in countries such as Greece, Macedonia, Romania, Switzerland, Montenegro and Serbia. Surprisingly, but the old new year in Africa is an old New Year: Celebrate him also in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia.
Traditions of the holiday
The eve of the old new year is called a generous evening (Vasilyev evening). On this day, the church notes the memory of the patron of Povigodov Vasily Saint. On the evening of January 13, women prepare meat junction with oil, after which they put a cooked dish in the corner with icons. Another traditional dish of the evening on the table is fried piglets (the symbol of fertility of the Earth and the fruitfulness of livestock). Also on the eve of the Old New Year, with the sunset until midnight, teenage girls walk along the neighbors to generous, wanting to the masters of happiness, health and good luck in the coming year.
The owners of the next day, January 14, are men. At the very morning, they sow grain from peasants, relatives, loved ones and acquaintances. According to the people, they should be the first to enter the house on this day. This will bring happiness next year. Sowers congratulate on the New Year, wish wealth and abundance. The owners in response are torn by cakes, sweets and fruits, and sometimes money. Grain after seeding leaves until the evening. It is accepted not to fit the broom, but carefully collect, and in the spring to use for sowing.
Folk Signals of the Old New Year
In the old new year there are many of the most different accepts. So, in some seletes to this day, on the night of January 13-14, it burns old clothes and put a new one that symbolizes the beginning of a new and good life. The rite has been preserved on January 14, when the hostesses with three lit candles bypass the whole house clockwise and suffered. It will protect the house from all troubles.
Male hosts on this day with an ax with an ax that is stared in the threshold of the house, saying "life, health, bread." Young people have a tradition related to heart-owned affairs. For example, a rejected guy, he could try his happiness in love again and suggest a lady hand and heart. Also on this day the walling is common. If you make engagement on January 13, then marriage will be successful.
In popular beliefs, the old new year is connected with other signs that it says that on the eve of the holiday it is impossible to pronounce the figure 13, and on January 14, it is not considered a trifle, otherwise the year will be plaqueless, you can not make garbage, otherwise, with him from home, come out of the house .
If on the morning of January 14, the branches are covered with fluffy me, it means that a lot of honey rushes in the next year. In the old new year it is impossible to lend anything, otherwise the year will be in debt. It is customary to ask for forgiveness, to put up and settle conflicts. It is impossible to refuse reconciliation and forgiveness. If this day is getting sick, then you will get root all year. Morning snow - Winter will be a snowy, and spring late. The ice on the street is a good harvest. Want to collect a big harvest of apples, then at midnight shake the snow with an apple tree. Born on this day, promised a rich life.
Rituals and rites of the old new year
The night from January 13-14 is full of mysteries and mystics. All the desires that you make this night, almost probably come true. All secret becomes clear. All unrealized dreams are implemented. At least, our ancestors believed in this holy. You can also try happiness by spending a welfare ritual, the world around the world or love to the coffin.
Problems, won! Each of us would like to get rid of any problems in your life. We suggest to burn them! To do this, you need to cut small pieces of paper on a small plate. Each piece of paper should write what you would like to get rid of. Thought on paper should be concrete, and not generalized. After that, all the sheets on the plate with the words of gratitude should be burned.
There is a lot of money. This ritual requires training. A few days before the onset of the old new year, put two five-stele coins in the wallet. Without pulling them out of the wallet, we carry before January 13, the coins must "get used to you". On the eve of the old new year, you melt a little wax of green candle (green color attracts money). From the resulting mass, make a small cake and put on it on both sides of the harvested coins. Money talisman in the morning of January 14 in a canvas bag of green and hide into a secluded place. All year he will bring you prosperity.
Amur affairs. In search of the second half? Dating sites not for you? No problem! Old New Year will solve this problem. Ignor red, white and green candles, after which put them in a crystal decanter with water on a round mirror and ask for love pure, like a key water, hot, like a flame and transparent, like a mirror. Repeat the spell three times. Before the rite you need to forgive all the former partners, to whom to keep offense, let go of fears and doubts. For the day of all lovers, you will no longer be so alone.
Beauty is a terrible force. On the way to beauty, all means are good! January 13, pour key water into the cup and put it in the headboard bed on the night under the old new year. In the morning of January 14, waking up without getting out of bed, take the cup with your left hand and read:
"With a soft bed, I, the servant of God, will stand, Jesus Christ and the Virgin Mary (or the God of which honors), I will go to the gate, I will get to the key, I want to get the wovers. In order for, having sinking her, to become a Belolitz, Krasnoyemy, the girl's Gras, and not Chernivak. To make everyone who seeming me, and I praised my beauty, I spoke about love, Giving gifts. To have grooms, as in the herd of cows. To become like a girl's beauty, there was a whole year until the conspiracy comes. Amen."
Drink the half of the key water, and the rest will leave yourself. Before the onset of the next day it is impossible to wash.
In general, if you wanted something for a long time, waited or wanted to change in our lives, then the old new year will help you in this.
Soon the holiday of Christmas and the old new year will move on the day. It's true?
Yes, it is pure truth. That's just not quite soon. Another extremely interesting fact is born here, which we must share with you. Less than a hundred years old, the old new year will fall out already on January 14, but on the 15th. This is due to the fact that the difference between Julian and Gregorian calendars increases every age. Currently, the literal difference between the summer "on the old" and "on the new" style is 13 days. But from March 1, 2100, this difference will be 14 days. Thus, it is not difficult to guess that after meeting 2101 of the New Year, both Christmas and the old new year will be celebrated on the day later - January 8 and 15, respectively.
On the night of January 13-14 in Russia, as well as in many countries of near abroad, the old new year is celebrated. AIF.RU explains how and when this holiday appeared.
The old new year is a rare historical phenomenon, an additional holiday that turned out as a result of changing the summer. Because of this discrepancy of the calendar, we celebrate two "new years" - according to the old and new style.
How old new year appeared
The date of the creation of the world (according to the ancient translation of the Old Testament) was previously considered to be March 1, 5508 BC. e. Therefore, the new year began on the first day of spring (according to a new style on March 14).
However, in Konstatinopol Era, this date was recalculated more accurately, and the day of the creation of the world began to be considered September 1, 5509 BC. e. Therefore, the new year started on the first day of autumn.
In the pagan times in Russia, the new year was celebrated on March 22 - on the day of the spring equinox. After the adoption of Christianity, the Byzantine calendar began to gradually displace the old one, and the new year was now beginning on September 1. This date and today some teachings are interpreted as a true birthday of Christ. D. Ongime time in Russia retained New Year's mind - some continued to celebrate the new year in the spring, others - in the fall. And only at the end of the 15th century - in 1492 - officially determined the unified date of the new year in Russia - September 1.
Only after 2 century, December 19, 1700, Peter I. Announced the decree of the summer to calculate from January 1 from the Nativity of Christ (that is, on the "new" style - January 14). Thus, in the Russian state, 1699 lasted only 4 months, from September to December.
By the twentieth century, the Calendar of Russia, which continued to enjoy the Julian calendar, lagged behind the European Calendar, which had long passed to the Gregorian calendar. To reduce this break, in 1918, the decree of the Council of People's Comisurov was carried out by the transition to the Gregorian calendar - a new style, and on January 14 - the Day of St. Vasily, the Archbishop of Caesarea Cappodetskaya - turned out to be an old New Year.
What countries do the old new year celebrate countries?
The old new year is noted not only in the CIS. On January 13, also served a festive table in the following countries:
Also celebrate the old new year in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. True, he is celebrated by the Berber calendar, which is the Julian calendar with insignificant differences. As a result of the accumulated errors, the eve of the holiday falls on January 11th.
Old New Year today
On the night of January 13-14, everyone can afford to "preserve" the most beloved holiday. After all, for many believers, the old new year is of particular importance, since they can note the beginning of the New Year only after the end of the Christmas post.
Today, from year to year, the popularity of the old new year is growing, and Russia is no exception. More and more people belong to him as a special holiday, which extends the charm of the new year, or allows you to feel this charm for the first time. After all, this holiday is more relaxed, he does not have a bustle that is the inevitable satellite of the New Year.
When will the new year celebrate in 90 years?
Interestingly, the difference between Julian and Gregorian calendars increases every century, when the number of hundreds in the year from Christmas is not a multiple of four for one day. Now the difference between the Julian and Gregorian calendar is 13 days. And from March 1, 2100, this difference will amount to 14 days. And since 2101, Christmas and the old new year will be celebrated a day later.