Why are the tops of the mountains covered with snow even in the summer? - Want to know everything. Science for children and young people

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The mountainsЧ

we are higher we rises in

the mountains

, the colder,


It becomes more rarefied (this means that the amount of gases included in its composition, such as oxygen) decrease in the air).

Some mountains are so high that the air is always cold, it is never even in the summer, it does not warm up so much to cause melting



Nobody live at the highest height of high mountains located at the highest altitude, no one can live - living creatures are not able to withstand cold, winds and firing air. Above a certain height (3965 m [or 13,000 feet] in warm fields) even trees cannot grow on the slopes of the mountains. Lifting up to the highest peaks, climbers, so that it was breathing, (to stay alive), forced to take cylinders with oxygen.

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Mountain peaks fascinate with their greatness and mounted to themselves. Standing on the top of the mountain, you have nothing to do with the surrounding beauty.

At an altitude of several thousand meters from the ground, everything seems and perceived otherwise than below. The sun seems very close, it is only a hand with a hand, and it even feels warm from its rays. And you look around on the sides - everything is covered with white snow, which feels wonderful under the sunny rays and is not in a hurry to melt at all. Why does not snow melting on the mountain peaks? What is the cause of such a paradox?

The sun heats the earth not by heat itself, but solar radiation. And earth soil and water absorb this solar energy, and return it back in the form of heat energy. The surface of the earth, as a blanket, covered with an atmosphere consisting of gases, clouds. The density of the atmosphere delays heat at the ground surface and distributes it warm, smoothing sharp contrasts between the surface under the sun and in the shade. In the absence of an atmosphere, under the sun, it would be unbearable hot, and the chill is cold in the shade.

Why on top of the mountains lies snow

The higher from the surface of the Earth, the air is more resolved. On the mountain vertices, the affairs of the air is so great that he does not hold warm. But what about the person, being in the mountains, does not freeze? All because a person absorbs radiation of solar heat is much better than snow. The sun rays are reflected from white snow, not so much to warm it. As you know, the lighter item is the worse the ability to absorb solar energy.

Thus, the height of the mountain peaks almost does not reach the heat from the bottom from the surface of the earth, and the solar heat is reflected from above, it would seem that of such a close sun. As a result, the temperature on the vertices of the mountains all the time remains minus. Therefore, the snow that fell on the mountain peak lies on it in her pristine whiteness for a long time and does not melt.

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Why mountain peaks are always covered with snow? Why doesn't he be tatt, despite the fact that summer on the street? It would seem, everything should be the opposite. The sky here is constantly clear, the sun shines brightly, the weather is warm - everything says that the snow should not be here, but we have a direct opposite picture. Why?

Some naive people believe that the closer to the sun, it should be hotter. This is definitely so, but only if not to take into account atmospheric pressure, air loss, and height. In fact, in the upper layers of the atmosphere is always cold. That is why snow is always formed in the clouds that are at an altitude of several thousand meters. And the top of the mountain, with a snowy cap, it is at such a height and is located. And what it is higher, the colder. And the distance is a few kilometers, compared to 150 million kilometers (it is at such a distance that the sun is from the Earth) does not mean anything. The intensity of solar radiation will not become more, and the snow will not affect the melting process.

Snow lying on the top of the mountains is almost on the upper boundary of the atmosphere. The climatic conditions here are somewhat different than those that are present at the surface of the Earth. The pressure here is less, the air is less dense, the temperature is lower. Scientists have established that at the height of two hundred meters, the temperature relative to the earth's surface is less than one degree. But these are only approximate figures. In the realities, the temperature may be much lower, because the thinner the atmospheric layer, the higher the temperature difference.

The sun warms the earthly surface all day. At night there is a reverse process - the land returns heat of the atmosphere. At the same time, its fifteen-tissue layer is heated. As for snow vertices, they have a high reflective ability. As a result, the mountain peak almost does not absorb heat, and, accordingly, does not heat the ambient air. That is why a snowy hat is not tatt.

We can observe it on high-altitude ski slopes in the summer. The temperature there is about 30 degrees of heat, skiers are dressed in light sports costumes, and even at all in T-shirts, and at the same time they quietly skiing on the crispy snow, which does not respond at all to heat and not tat. As for man, in contrast to the snow, his body actively absorbs the sun's rays. That is why skiers and warmth.

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