Charging for acb with your own hands - the simplest scheme, part 2. - Drive2
We continue the theme www.drive2.ru/b/2181752/, with a description of step-by-step making of our charging. Step 4: "Rectifying" scheme. We have previously decided on the coil, the case and cooling has already been determined, but the fact is that the coil or the transformer gives an alternating current, for its conversion to constant, the diagram of a diode "bridge" or a ready-made diode bridge that is kept from 30a and higher.
An example of a diode bridge.
But in the market prices for diode bridges, though small but we will use more affordable details. Made on the basis of the "Soviet" diodes that are in any body of radio equipment of those times, in any case they are more reliable, and more resistant to overheating. That is a list of suitable Diodes for our needs.
I found D243, I just fits.
Next, with the help of our friends,
We cut any aluminum profile for the manufacture of cooling radiators.
Connect the elements of each other according to the scheme,
To comply with the polarity and facilitate the assembly on each diode there is a label (drawing), which can be focused. It turned out so, already marked black and red where the polarity should be at the exit, plus red and minus black.
Now all these elements are placed in the housing, by observing the distance, and according to the scheme, connect to the transformer (coil).
I got like that.
View from the cooling system.
In fact, this is the ready simplest power supply without protection. It has a cooling system that will prevent our block and parts from overheating. But it does not have protection against short circuit and work with it needs to be controlled by a separate measuring instrument.
Step 5: The simplest scheme of the most affordable charger.
To create, we need any simplest power supply from 15V and higher. Power supplies are also suitable for laptop and household appliances. So as we have already manufactured such a block, consider the connection schemes to the automotive battery for charging. The most common.
with our power supply
With a power supply from a laptop.
As you can see an additional chain element, this car light is 12V or several pieces.
You can say the light bulb will be an indicator of work, charging, and a small protection of power supplies from failure. Since the automotive battery in essence has low density and power supplies that are not intended for this may simply fail. Also, if it suddenly gets a battery with closed banks about which will signal a very bright glow.
According to this scheme, I connected acb through these light bulbs,
On a little discharged battery
According to this scheme, such a charging that I collected gives up to 3 amps.
When charging calmly gives 1 amp, which favorably affects the battery, while it is not bad for low currents.
When charging the battery, you need to unscrew the plugs on the banks on the battery.
Minus such a scheme that the charging process must be controlled by a separate measuring device so that there is no recharge on the battery, that is, when it is reached on terminals to ~ 14.4V or boiling in banks, you need to disable everything.
In the following themes, we consider the simplest current adjustment schemes - we will make your own, consider how to connect the measurement instruments to the ammeter voltmeter. It can be said a little complicating the design that everyone does not have experience on electronics.
Well, like that of all the world and good, add comments if there is something to tell or take part, I will not refuse :).
Probably, every motorist knows how the charging for the car battery is quickly broken. If once again it happened, it came to collect him on my own. It is easy, even if there is no electrical knowledge.
Everyone knows that the entire car electronics feeds from 12V. In this case, the charging device should issue a current of 10% of the nominal container. Without this, the memory will also work, but much slower.
To achieve these parameters, you will need:
- Transformer with 2 windings. Here the rule works "the more turns - the better." If the windings are more, then not scary. They will not be involved. In fact, any pulse transformer is suitable.
- From the outlet there is alternating meals. The charger for the car battery, made by its own hands, should issue a permanent one. This case will need a rectifier.
- Tester. The multimeter is necessary in order to determine the output voltage. It should be exactly 12 volts.
- Make a battery charger is impossible without automatics. Otherwise, the battery may explode. Therefore, the voltage control relay is necessary.
- You need to adjust the current. A variable resistor can cope with it. It is advisable to take a multi-coiled regulator of the current so that the adjustment was smooth.
This is enough to assemble a simple charger.
Charger Scheme for Car Battery
To assemble a homemade charger, at least soldering skills are needed, no more. Here is a few scheme of a charger for a car battery that can be collected in a couple of hours.
Here are 3 charts of a simple charger for a car battery. Perhaps all the necessary components already have it or you can buy them for a barrel on the flea market.
With 1 diode
The transformer is placed on 1 amp and switch for convenience. After the transformer from one output of the winding, a diode is placed, and from the other - a fuse. In the gap you need to put an ammeter and a voltmeter. You can buy cheap Chinese testers, where only the screen and wires. You can use Soviet shooter.
The circuit of the automatic charger is not the best. The diode cuts off the lower part of the sinus, from which the ripple is uneven.
With diode bridge
For car battery, this option is suitable better. DM is a full voltage equalizer.
The charger for the car battery is also assembled, but the bridge is installed instead of the diode. From his minus the wire goes to the fuse after the transformer.
The diode bridge can be bought or soldered independently. To do this, you will need only 4 diodes. The scheme looks like this. Voltage is still pulsating, which is not very good for batteries.
With a diode bridge and condenser
This is what the correct transformer charger looks like. There is a capacitor for 25-50 volts and 5000-6000 microfrades between plus and minus.
The capacitor takes the voltage and gives it, but already aligned and without ripples.
Schemes with adjustment
If you want a charger for a car battery, work done correctly, a regulator is needed. With this, an ordinary rapid (variable) resistor by 4.7 kiloma will cope with it.
Also in the diagram there are 3 transistors. Their location and number signed, so there will be no problems. Enough to come to a radio shop and show items. They are needed that the resistor worked correctly.
The transistors need to be at least passive cooling, therefore it is better to attach to their radiators to attach an aluminum plate or put a cooler.
Comment. In the diagram in the transistor of the P210 transistor and the second fuse is an ammeter. With current adjustment and voltage in it, it is not necessary, since only the voltage is needed. Therefore, it is better to put a voltmeter in its place.
Detailed video can be viewed below.
Procedure for assembling charger for a car battery
By consider how to make a charger for a car. For a beginner it is quite suitable for this scheme. It was reviewed earlier. How to improve it - written above.
First you need to get a transformer. In radio equipment and old tape recorders, you can find a good TC-180-2. It consists of 4 windings. You need to connect to the primary conclusions 1 and 1, and on the secondary 9 numbers. That is, if you connect 4 windings in 2 sequentially, a two-winding transformer with a voltage of 13.6 volts, which is required for normal operation to work. To the conclusions number 2 you need to solder a network cord.
How to connect a charger to a car battery? Just need a diode bridge to connect with 10 conclusions with wires. In the gap it is worth putting an ammeter with a limitation of 15 amps.
A voltage regulator is falling into the ammeter chain. Between the conclusions from the transformer you need to put a voltmeter.
To protect the automatic charger for car batteries, you need to put fuses. One side of the battery (10 A), the second at the inlet to the transformer (0,5a).
You should not immediately put a high current. For reinsurance on the charger, you need to install a low current (from 1a), and then gradually increase to 9-10a. When the battery is charged, the ammeter will show about 1 amp. This means that the charger can be turned off.
A homemade recharge device can be made of BP from the computer. It will be necessary to modify it a little, but it turns out good, almost factory zoom. Perhaps the power supply can be found in the covers.
For the most part, BP are built on the basis of the PWM module TL494. It is perfect for automotive charging.
Next you just need to act according to the instructions:
- All wires, except yellow and black, need to trim.
- They solder them with each other: yellow with yellow, black with black.
- On the controller you need to cut the tracks that go to the Pins: 1, 14, 15, 16.
- In the housing it is necessary to make 2 holes for trimming resistors (10 and 4.4 kilomes).
- It remains only to collect this scheme. You do not need to breed a fee, everything is done by mounting.
In an automatic charger made with your own hands, it does not interfere with the multimeter to be embedded in the BP housing.
The analysis of more than 11 schemes for making your own hands at home, new schemes 2017 and 2018, how to collect a fundamental scheme for an hour.
TEST:To understand whether you have the necessary information about batteries and chargers for them, you should pass a small test:
- What is the main reasons, the car battery is discharged on the road?
A) the motorist left the vehicle and forgot to turn off the headlights.
B) the battery is too heated under the influence of sunlight.
- Can the battery fail if the car does not use for a long time (it is in the garage without launch)?
A) with a duty, a simple battery will fail.
B) No, the battery will not deteriorate, it will only be necessary to charge and it will function again.
- Which current source is used to recharge the battery?
A) There is only one option - a network with a voltage of 220 volts.
B) network of 180 volts.
- Be sure to remove the battery when connecting a self-made device?
A) It is advisable to dismantle the battery from the installed place, otherwise the risk will damage the electronics by the intake of a large voltage.
B) it is not necessary to remove the battery from the installed place.
- If you confuse "minus" and "plus" when connecting the memory, then the battery will fail?
A) Yes, when improperly connected, the equipment is scorified.
B) Charger simply will not turn on, you will need to move the necessary contacts to the required places.
- A) No headlights when stopped and minus temperature are the most common reasons for the battery discharge on the road.
- A) Akb fails if it is not necessary to recharge it for a simple car.
- A) to recharge the network voltage in 220 V.
- A) It is not desirable to charge the battery with a homemade device if it is not removed from the car.
- A) should not be confused by the terminals, otherwise the homemade apparatus is overrigent.
Battery On the vehicle require periodic charging. The reasons for the discharge can be different - starting from the headlights that the owner forgot to turn off, and to negative temperatures in the winter on the street. For feeding AKB It will take good charger. Such a device in large varieties is presented in auto parts stores. But if there is no possibility or the desire to buy, then Zause You can make it yourself at home. There is also a large number of schemes - they are preferably studied to choose the most suitable option.
Definition: The charger for the car is intended for the transmission of electric current with a given voltage directly to Akb.
Answers to 5 frequently asked questions
- Will it take some additional measures before you start charging the battery on your car? - Yes, you will need to clean the terminals, since acid deposits appear during operation. Contacts It must be cleaned very well to clean the current without difficulties to go to the battery. Sometimes motorists use lubrication to handle terminals, it should also be removed.
- What to wipe the terminals of the charger? - Specialized tool can be bought in the store or prepare yourself. As an independently made solution, water and soda use. Components are mixed and mixed. This is an excellent option for processing all surfaces. When the acid becomes contact with soda, then the reaction will occur and the motorist will definitely notice it. This place will need to thoroughly wipe to get rid of all Acids. If the terminals were previously treated with lubricant, then it is removed by any clean cloth.
- If there are covers on the battery, then you need to open before you start charging? - If the lids are on the housing, they are definitely removed.
- For what reason do you need to unscrew the lids with the battery? - It is necessary that the gases formed in the process of charging are free from the housing.
- Is there a need to pay attention to the level of electrolyte in the battery? - This is done necessarily. If the level is lower than the required, then you need to add distilled water inside the battery. The level to determine will not be difficult - the plates must be completely covered with liquid.
Another important to know: 3 nuances of operation
Homemaking by method of operation is somewhat different from the factory option. This is explained by the fact that the purchase unit has built-in functions Helping in work. They are difficult to install on the device assembled at home, and therefore will have to adhere to several rules when operation.
- The charger assembled with your own hands will not be turned off when charging the battery. That is why it is necessary to periodically monitor the equipment and connect to it Multimeter - To control the charge.
- Need to be very neat, not to confuse "plus" and "minus", otherwise Charger grill.
- Equipment must be turned off when connecting to Charger.
Fulfilling these simple rules, it turns out to correctly produce a feedback AKB And prevent unpleasant consequences.
Top 3 Charger Manufacturers
If there is no desire or the opportunity to collect with your own hands Pray That pay attention to the following manufacturers:
The firms have proven themselves in the market, and therefore the reliability and functionality should not be worn when buying.
How to avoid 2 errors when charging the battery
It is necessary to comply with the basic rules to properly focus Battery. by car.
- Directly to the electrical stub Rechargeable battery It is forbidden to connect. For this purpose, charging devices are intended.
- Even device It is made high quality and of good materials, you still need to periodically observe the process. charging So that trouble do not happen.
Performing simple rules will provide reliable operation of independently made equipment. It is much easier to monitor the unit than after spending on the components for repair.
The simplest charger for the battery
Scheme 100% of the working memory by 12 volts
Look at the picture on the scheme Zause On 12 V. The equipment is intended to charge automotive batteries with a voltage of 14.5 volts. The maximum current obtained by charge is 6 A. But the device is also suitable for other batteries - lithium-ionic, since the voltage and output current can be adjusted. All major components for assembling the device can be found on Aliexpress.com.
- DC-DC lowering converter.
- Diode Bridge KSRS 5010.
- Hubs 2200 μF by 50 volts.
- Transformer TC 180-2.
- Circuit breakers.
- Plug for connecting to the network.
- Crocodiles for connecting terminals.
- Radiator for a diode bridge.
Transformer Any one is used, at its own discretion, the main thing is that its power is not lower than 150 W (with a charging current of 6 A). It is necessary to install thick and short wires on the equipment. The diode bridge is fixed on a large radiator.
Scheme zoom dawn 2
Look at the picture on the Charger Scheme Dawn 2. . It is composed of original Head. If you master this scheme, you will independently create a high-quality copy, not different from the original sample. Constructively, the device is a separate unit closed by the body to protect the electronics from moisture and exposure to bad weather conditions. On the base of the case, a transformer and thyristors on radiators must be connected. A fee will be required that will stabilize the charge charge and control thyristors and terminals.
1 scheme of smart memory
Look at the picture of the intelligence scheme Charger . The device is necessary for connecting to lead-acid batteries having a capacity of 45 amps per hour or more. Connect such a type of device not only to batteries, which is used daily, but also to duty or in reserve. This is a rather budgetary version of the equipment. It does not provide indicator, And the microcontroller can be bought the cheapest.
If there is a necessary experience, the transformer is going to do it. No need to install also audio alert signals - if battery It will be connected incorrectly, the discharge light light will notify the error. It is necessary to put the pulse power supply unit by 12 volts - 10 amps.
1 scheme of industrial memory
Look at the industrial scheme Charger From Bars 8a equipment. Transformers are used with one power winding by 16 volts, several VD-7 and VD-8 diodes are added. This is necessary in order to provide a bridge scheme of the rectifier from one winding.
1 inverter scheme
Look at the picture of the diagram of the inverter charger. This device before starting charging discharges a battery to 10.5 volts. The current is used with the value of C / 20: "C" denotes the capability of the installed battery. Thereafter Process The voltage rises to 14.5 volts, with the help of a discharge-charging cycle. The ratio of charge and discharge is ten to one.
1 Electronics Electronics
1 scheme of a powerful memory
Look at the picture on a powerful charger for a car battery. The device is used for acid Akb, having a high container. The device easily charges a car battery having a capacity of 120 A. Output voltage The device is adjusted independently. It ranges from 0 to 24 volts. Scheme Noteworthy in that there are few components installed in it, but it does not require additional settings.
2 schemes of the Soviet para
Many could see Soviet Charger . It looks like a small box of metal, and may seem very unreliable. But it is not at all. The main difference between the Soviet sample from modern models is reliability. Equipment has a structural power. In the event that to the old Device Connect an electronic controller, then Charger It turns out to revive. But if there is no such thing at hand, but there is a desire to collect it, it is necessary to study the scheme.
To features Their equipment includes a powerful transformer and rectifier, with which it turns out to be quickly charged even highly discharged. Battery. Many modern devices will not be able to repeat this effect.
For an hour: 2 Charging schemes do it yourself
1 simplest scheme for automatic memory for auto battery
Top 4 pulse memory schemes
1 scheme for thyristor memory
1 Simplified Scheme from Soldering Iron
1 scheme for intelligent memory
4 Detailed protection schemes for memory
New Schemes 2017 and 2018
1 scheme for chinese zoom
1 Simple scheme - how to collect a memory
Schemes of simple powerful battery chargers.
Transformer memory for automotive batteries with high efficiency: the simplest on quenching capacitors, as well as impulseon thyristors, simistors and powerful field transistors. For a start, let's break and forget about such a parameter as the efficiency. Suppose there is a keen desire to charge the car Akb, But there is no possibility due to the complete absence of charging. We will also make an assumption that the farm has lost: incandescent lamp by 220 volts, a diode bridge with a permissible current exceeding the current in which we will charge the battery, or, at worst, Just a power (rectifier) diode with the same permissible current and maximum reverse voltage - at least 300V.
Fig.1Navigating the scheme shown in Fig.1 to the left, and pursuing compliance with safety, as well as the polarity of the connection to the battery, We get a complete workable device that provides normalized and permanent charge current of the battery charge.
Since 220 volts are the active value of the voltage of the network, the current strength flowing through the battery can be calculated by simpleFormula: Izar (a) = PLAMP (W) / (220 - UAKB) (B) ≈ PLAMP (W) / 220 (B)
.A parallel connection of two lamps - doubles the charging current, three - afterwards, etc. to reasonable infinity. The scheme depicted in Figure 1 on the right, gives a current twice as smaller compared to the previous one. The greater advantage of the shown schemes is the possibility of charging any batteries, regardless of their own values of their voltages.
Another simple and budget scheme of the battery charger with an operating voltage 12 or 6 V and electrical capacityFrom 10 to 120 a / h is presented in Fig. 2.
Fig.2The device consists of a lowering transformer T1 and a powerful rectifier collected on diodes VD2-VD5. Installation of charging current Perched by S2-S5 switches, with which in the power supply chain of the primary winding of the transformer connects quenching capacitors
Due to the multiple "weight" of each switch, various combinations allow step-to-adjust charging current in the range of 1-15 A
In terms of 1 A. this is enough to select the optimal charging current.
In the design you can use any power transformer with a capacity of about 300 W, including homemade. He must issue
On the secondary winding, the voltage is 22-24 at the current up to 10-15 A.. In place VD2-VD5, any rectifier diodes that carry out the straight line will be suitable.
The current is at least 10 A and the reverse voltage not lower than 40 V. is suitable for D214 or D242. They should be installed through insulating gaskets on
Radiator with scattering area of at least 300 square meters. cm.
Capacitors C2-C5 must necessarily be non-polar paper with a working voltage not lower than 300 V. Suitable, for example, MBCH, KBG-MN, MBGO, IBD, IBM, IBGC. Such capacitors having the shape of cubes were widely used as phase shifting for household electric motors Technique. As PU1, a voltmeter of DC type M5-2 with a measurement limit of 30 V. PA1 is an ammeter of the same type with
- 30 A. measurement limit
- In this scheme, the high efficiency of the efficiency will be achieved due to the use of capacitors as a current elements that are known to
- They have reactive conductivity and do not allocate thermal power on themselves.
- Next, impulse (key) chargers, built on another principle, but also differ in low
- own power consumption.
- One of the first impulse poles that appeared on the market were thyristor devices.
Generally, a thyristor is a device enough
Capricious and requiring adherence to a certain set of conditions for reliable operation. That is why - most of the simplest schemes given
In various sources, sin not very stable work and the need to select elements. From the number of successful simple developments, you can bring the diagram of a thyristor charger from the book of dear T. Khodasevich "Charging
- Devices ", repeatedly repeated with a numerous ample radio lobby and depicted in Fig.3.
- Fig. 3.
This is what the author writes:
Charger allows you to charge auto batteries with a current from 0 to 10 A, and can also be an adjustable source
Power for powerful low-voltage soldering iron, volcanizer, portable lamp.
The charging current is close to the impulse, which is considered to contribute to the extension of the battery life.
The device is operational at ambient temperature from - 35 ° C to + 35 ° C.
The charger is a thyristor phase-pulse control power regulator, powered by a downgrade II
Transformer T1 through the diode bridge VDI ... VD4.
The thyristor control unit is made on an analogue of a single-pass transistor VTI, VT2. The time during which the C2 capacitor is charging
Before switching a single-pass transistor, can be adjusted by a variable resistor R1. With extreme right according to the scheme of its position
Charging current will be maximal, and vice versa.
The VD5 diode protects the VS1 thyristor control circuit from the reverse voltage occurs when the thyristor is turned on.
Capacitor C2 - K73-11, with a capacity from 0.47 to 1 μF, or K73-16, K73-17, K42U-2, MBGP.
Transistor Kt361a will be replaced by KT361B - KT361O, CT3107L, CT502B, KT502G, CT501G - KT50IK, and KT315L - on CT315B + CT315D KT312B, CT3102L,
KT503B + KT503g, p307. Instead of KD105B, CD105B diodes are suitable, KD105G or D226 with any alphabetic index.
Variable resistor R1 - SP-1, SPZ-30A or SPO-1.
The ammeter of the RA1 - any direct current with a scale of 10 A. It can be made independently from any milliammeter, picking up the shunt
on an exemplary ammeter.
Fuse F1 - fuse, but it is convenient to apply a network automatic machine for 10 A or automotive bimetallic on the same current.
VD1 ... VP4 diodes can be anywhere on a direct current of 10 A and a reverse voltage of at least 50 V (series D242, D243, D245, KD203, CD210, KD213). The rectifier diodes and thyristor are installed on heat sinks, each with a useful area near 100 cm *. To improve thermal contact Devices with heat sinks it is desirable to use heat-conducting pastes.
Instead of thyristor, KU202V is suitable KU202G - CU202E. Tested in practice that the device works normally and with more powerful Thyristors T-160, T-250.
- The device can use the finished network lowering transformer of the required power with the secondary winding voltage.
- from 18 to 22 V.
- If the transformer voltage on the secondary winding over 18 V, the R5 resistor should be replaced by another, greater resistance
- (For example, at 24 ... 26 in resistance of the resistor should be increased to 200 ohms).
- Despite the popularity and performance of the diagram, during the functioning of the device, many noted the uncharacteristic buzz
transformer at frequencies other than 100 Hz. This is due to the lack of clear and rapid fronts / recessions in signals entering
to the thyristor control input when it is turned on / off, which in turn creates conditions for the occurrence of generation processes
In the load.
The pulse chargers in which the switching element is performed on a symmetrical operation are somewhat better and more reliable. (bipolar) analogue of a thyristor - Simistor.
- Figure 4 shows a diagram of a similar device from the aforementioned book T. Khodasevich.
- The described below the charger has a wide range of charging current control - almost from 0 to 10a and maybe
- Used to charge various batteries on the voltage of 12V.
- The device is based on a seminist regulator with a low-power diode bridge VD1-VD4 and resistors R3 and R5. After connecting the device
- To the network, with its positive half-period, the C2 capacitor is charged via the R3 resistor, the VD1 diode and consistently connected resistors
R1 and R2. In the minus half-period - through the same R1 and R2, the VD2 diode and the R5 resistor. In both cases, the capacitor charges to one and
The same voltage changes only by the polarity of its charging. Once the voltage on the condenser reaches the neon lamp ignition threshold
HL1, it is ignited and the capacitor quickly discharged through the lamp and the control electrode of the Simistor VS1. In this Symistor opens.
At the end of the semi-version, the simistor closes. The described process is repeated in each semiprode of the network.
It is well known that the control of the simistor through a short impulse has the disadvantage that in inductive or high-aligned active
The electrode current of the device may not have time to achieve the value of the retention current during the validity of the control pulse.
One of the measures to eliminate this disadvantage is the inclusion parallel to the load of the resistor. In the described charger such
Resistors are R3 and R5 resistors, which, depending on the polarity of the network voltage sepidimension, are alternately connected
Parallel to the primary winding of the transformer.
The same purpose also serves as a powerful resistor R6, which is a load of rectifier VD5, VD6. The same resistor forms the bitmap pulses
Currents that prolong the service life of the AKB.
- Instead of the R6 resistor, you can install the incandescent lamp to the voltage of 12V with a power of 10W. In the manufacture of the transformer is set by the following parameters: voltage on the secondary winding of 20V at a current 10a. Several simplified the device described above can be applied in its high-voltage part of the Distoror (Fig. 5).
- We considered this diagram with the chart details on the page link page. therefore
- I will not repeat, I will only say that the presence of a tube chain shown in a blue scheme - be sure. As a load
- Primary network transformer winding.
- In modern chargers as a switching (adjusting) element, powerful are practically used everywhere.
- Field transistors. One of the similar devices was described in detail in the radio journal No. 5 2011 on page 44.
The charger control unit is a pulse generator collected on elements DD1.1 and DD1.2 (see the circuit in Fig. 6) and allowing adjusting pulses, buffer amplifier - inverter on elements DD1.3 and DD1.4 and switching regulating Element - field transistor VT1.
- When the elements indicated on the diagram, the generator frequency is about 13 kHz. Since the resistance of the open channel of the transistor VT1
- Very small (0.017 0m) and it works in a switch mode, with a charge current up to 5 A transistor almost does not heat up -
- Dissected thermal power does not exceed 0.55 W.
- As a lowering, a network transformer with an overall power of 150 W with a secondary winding, providing permanent
Voltage 16 ... 17 V on the C1 condenser and charging current up to 6 A.
The rectifier bridge is assembled on Schottky diodes, VD1 - dual SBL4045PT, A VD2 and VD3 - single 10tq045.
If the secondary winding of the network transformer is covered with a tap from the middle, the number of diodes in the rectifier and heat dissipation from
They can be reduced twice.
The drawing of the board is presented in Fig. 7.
The described control unit can also be used in light and heating devices, to change the rotational speed of the collector
electric motors. In this case, the supply voltage of devices can be varied over the wide limits determined by the maximum allowed
Parameters for switchal transistor and, of course, rectifier. In particular, the IRFZ46N transistor used in the node hasMaximum scattered power 107 W, maximum current via channel 53 A, the maximum voltage of stock source 55 V. is possible
Replacing the IRFZ44N transistor.
The proposed device allows you to adjust the power from zero to the maximum value, and the regulating transistor does not need
In efficient heat assignment with increasing load current up to 5 A.
As a result of a long or improper operation of automotive batteries, the plates can be sulganized, which leads
To their degradation and subsequent failure.
There is a method for restoring such batteries by the method of charge by their "asymmetric" current. In this case, the ratio of the charger and discharge
The current is selected 10: 1 (optimal mode). This mode allows not only to restore the accumulated batteries batteries,
But also carry out prophylactic processing of serviceable.
Fig. 8 shows a simple charger designed to use the method described above. The scheme provides impulse
Charging current up to 10 A (used for accelerated charge). To restore and train batteries, it is better to install
The pulse charge current 5 A. The discharge current will be 0.5 A. The discharge current is determined by the value of the R4 resistor rating.
The scheme is designed so that the battery charge is performed by current pulses for one half of the network voltage period,
When the voltage at the output of the circuit exceeds the voltage on the battery. During the second half period of diodes VD1, VD2 closed and battery
discharged through the load resistance R4.
The charging current value is set by the R2 control over the ammeter. Considering that when charging the battery, part of the current proceeds and
Through the R4 resistor (10%), then the indications of the ammeter of the Republic of Armender must correspond to 1.8 A (for a pulsed charging current of 5 A), since the ammeter
Shows averaged current value for a period of time, and the charge is performed within half of the period.
The diagram provides the battery protection from the uncontrolled discharge in case of accidental disappearance of the network voltage.
In this case, the K1 relay will open the battery connectivity circuit. Relay K1 applied type RPU-0 with operating voltage
The windings of 24 V or less voltage, but in this case, a restrictive resistor is activated with the winding.
For the device, you can use a transformer with a power of at least 150 W with a voltage in the secondary winding of 22 ... 25 V.
The measuring device of the Republic of Armenia is suitable with a scale of 0 ... 5 A (0 ... 3 A), for example M42100. The VT1 transistor is installed on the radiator area
at least 200 square meters cm, which is convenient to use a metal body of the charger design.
The charger (memory) for the battery is necessary to each motorist, but it is worth it a lot, and regular preventive trips to the car service does not exit. Battery maintenance in a hundred requires time and money. In addition, on the discharged battery before the service still needs to be reached. Collect your own hands a workable charger for the car battery with their own hands will be able to everyone who knows how to use the soldering iron.
Little battery theory
Any battery (AKB) is an electrical energy drive. When the voltage is applied to it, the energy accumulates, thanks to chemical changes inside the battery. When the consumer is connected, the opposite process takes place: the reverse chemical change creates a voltage on the terminals of the device, the current flows through the load. Thus, to get a voltage from the battery, it first needs to be "put", i.e. to charge the battery.
Almost any car has its own generator, which, when the engine running, provides power supply to the on-board equipment and charges the battery, replete energy spent on the motor start. But in some cases (frequent or heavy launch of the engine, short trips, etc.) the battery energy does not have time to recover, the battery is gradually discharged. Exit from the created position one is charging an external charger.
How to find out the condition of the battery
To make a decision on the need for charging, you need to determine which state is the ACB. The easiest option is "twist / not twist" - at the same time is unsuccessful. If the battery "does not twist", for example, in the morning in the garage, then you will not go anywhere at all. The state "does not twist" is critical, and the consequences for the battery can be sad.
The optimal and reliable method of checking the state of the battery is the measurement of the voltage on it by the usual tester. At air temperature of about 20 degrees
Degree of charging degree
On the terminals disconnected from the load (!) The battery is as follows:
12.6 ... 12.7 V - fully charged;
12.3 ... 12.4 in - 75%;
12.0 ... 12.1 B - 50%; 11.8 ... 11.9 in - 25%; 11.6 ... 11.7 V - discharged;
below 11.6 V - deep discharge.
It should be noted that the voltage is 10.6 volts - critical. If it drops below, then the "car battery" (especially non-listening) fails.
There are two methods for charging the automotive battery - constant voltage and direct current. Everyone has their own
Features and disadvantages:
Charging a constant voltage is suitable for the recovery of the charge of not fully discharged batteries, the voltage on the terminals of which is not lower than 12.3 V. The process is as follows: the battery terminals are connected with a voltage of 14.2-14.7 V. The end of the process controls the current consumption: when it falls to zero, charging is considered to be finished. The lack of this method is possible a large initial charging current; The stronger the battery is discharged, the higher the current. The advantages of the method are obvious - you do not need to constantly adjust the charging current, the battery does not threaten the recharge if you forget about it.
Charging a constant current is the most common and reliable way. In this mode, it gives a constant current equal to 1/10 battery capacity. The end of the charging process is determined by the voltage on the battery - when it reaches 14.7 V, charge the battery is stopped. The lack of such a method - the battery can be spoiled without removing in time with charging.
Homemade charging for batteries
Capricious and requiring adherence to a certain set of conditions for reliable operation. That is why - most of the simplest schemes given
Collect your own hand charger for the car battery is real and not particularly difficult. To do this, you need to have initial knowledge of electrical engineering and be able to keep a soldering iron in your hands.
- Devices ", repeatedly repeated with a numerous ample radio lobby and depicted in Fig.3.
- Fig. 3.
Simple device on 6 and 12 V
Such a scheme is the most elementary and budget. With this memory, you can qualitatively charge any lead battery with an operating voltage of 12 or 6 V and an electrical capacity from 10 to 120 a / h.
The device consists of a lowering transformer T1 and a powerful rectifier collected on diodes VD2-VD5. The charging current is made by the S2-S5 switches, with which the C1-C4 capacitors are connected to the transformer power supply circuit. Due to the multiple "weight" of each switch, various combinations allow stepwise to adjust the charging current in the range of 1-15 A with increments of 1 A. This is sufficient to select the optimal charging current.
For example, if a current of 5 A is required, then you will need to enable S4 and S2 tumbler. The closed S5, S3 and S2 will be given in the amount of 11 A. to control the voltage on the battery serves the PU1 voltmeter, followed by the charging current using the PA1 ammeter.
In the design you can use any power transformer with a capacity of about 300 W, including homemade. It should produce voltage 22-24 at the secondary winding at a current to 10-15 A.. In place VD2-VD5, any rectifier diodes, withstanding direct current of at least 10 A and the reverse voltage not lower than 40 V. are suitable for D214 or D242. They should be installed through insulating gaskets on the radiator with an area of scattering at least 300 cm.
C2-C5 capacitors must necessarily be non-polar paper with an operating voltage not lower than 300 V. Suitable, for example, MBCH, KBG-MN, MBGO, IBD, IBM, IBGC. Such capacitors having the shape of cubes were widely used as phase shifting for electromotors of household appliances. As PU1, a DC voltmeter of the M5-2 type with a measurement limit of 30 V. PA1 is an ammeter of the same type with a measurement limit of 30 A.
The scheme is simple, if you collect it out of serviceable parts, it does not need it in establishing. This device is suitable for charging scest batteries, but the "weight" of each of the S2-S5 switches will be different. Therefore, to navigate in the charging currents will have to ammeter.
With smooth adjustment current
According to this scheme, collect the charger for the battery of the car with your own hands is more difficult, but it is possible in repetition and also does not contain scarce details. With it, it is permissible to charge 12-volt batteries with a capacity of up to 120 a / h, the charge current is smoothly adjustable.
Charging the battery is performed by a pulse current, a thyristor is used as an adjusting element. In addition to the smooth adjustment knob, this design has a mode switch, when the charging current is turned on twice.
Charging mode is monitored visually by the direction of RA1. R1 resistor homemade, made of nichrome or copper wire with a diameter of at least 0.8 mm. It serves as a current limiter. Lamp EL1 - indicator. In its place, any small-sized indicator lamp with a voltage of 24-36 V.
A lowering transformer can be applied with an output voltage along the secondary winding 18-24 at a current to 15 A. If the appropriate device did not turn out at hand, it can be done from any network transformer with a power of 250-300 W. To do this, with a transformer, all windings are clarified, except for the network, and wind one secondary winding with any insulated wire with a cross section of 6 mm. sq. The number of turns in the winding is 42.
Thyristor VD2 can be any of the KU202 series with letters in-N. It is installed on the radiator with an area of dissipation of at least 200 cm. Power installation of the device is made by wires of minimal length and with a cross section of at least 4 mm. sq. In place VD1, any rectifying diode with a reverse voltage is not lower than 20 V and withstand current of at least 200 mA.
The device is established to calibrate the ammeter RA1. You can do this by connecting several 12-volt lamps with a total capacity of up to 250 W, controlling the current according to a well-serviceable reference ammeter.
From a computer unit
To assemble this simple charger with your own hands, you will need a regular power supply from the old ATH computer and knowledge of radio engineering. But but the characteristics of the device will be decent. With it, they charge the battery to 10 A, adjusting the current and the charge voltage. The only condition - the BP is desirable on the TL494 controller.We will have to collect the scheme shown in the figure.
Step-by-step necessary for the revision of the operation Will look like this:Bite all the wires of the power tires, with the exception of yellow and black.
Step-by-step necessary for the revision of the operation To combine the yellow and separate black wires among themselves - it will be, respectively, "+" and "-" memory (see scheme).
Out all the tracks leading to the conclusions 1, 14, 15 and 16 of the TL494 controller.
Install the variables of the resistors with a nominal value of 10 and 4.4 kΩ on the cover of BP - these are the voltage adjustment organs and charging current, respectively.
Attachment to assemble the scheme shown in the figure above.
If the installation is performed correctly, then the improvement is completed. It remains to equip a new voice with a voltmeter, an ammeter and wires with "crocodiles" to connect to the battery.
In the design it is possible to use any variables and permanent resistors, in addition to the current (bottom according to the scheme with a face value of 0.1 Ohm). Its dissipated power is at least 10 W. You can make this resistor yourself from the nichrome or copper wire of the appropriate length, but really find and ready, for example, the shunt from the Chinese digital tester by 10 A or the C5-16MV resistor. Another option is two 5WR2J resistors turned on in parallel. Such resistors are in pulsed power supplies PC or TVs.
What you need to know when charging the battery
Chargeing a car battery, it is important to observe a number of rules. It will help you
Extend battery life and save your health:
All lead batteries charge the current not higher than one tenth of the battery capacity. If you have a car in the car with a capacity of 60 a / h, then the calculation of the charging current looks like this: 60/10 = 6 A.
In the process of charging, explosive gases may be allocated. This is especially true of serviced batteries. There is enough one spark that the hydrogen accumulated in the garage or other room exploded. Therefore, you need to charge batteries in a well-ventilated room or on the balcony.
Charging the battery is accompanied by heat release, so constantly monitor the accommodation temperature of the battery to the touch. If the battery was noticeably heated, then immediately reduce the charging current or stop charging at all.
If the battery is served, constantly monitor the electrolyte level in banks and its density. In the process of charge, the electrolyte "rolls out", and the density increases. If the plates in the bank denied or the density rose above 1.29, and the charging is not yet completed, add distilled water to the electrolyte.
Do not recharge the battery. Maximum voltage on it with a connected memory - 14.7 V.
Do not allow a deep discharge of the battery, recharge it periodically. If the battery voltage at disabled load drops below 10.7, the battery will have to be thrown away.
The question of creating a simple charger for the battery with your own hands is clarified. Everything is quite simple, it remains to stock the necessary tool and you can safely begin to work.
Originally Posted 2018-07-04 08:34:51.
Battery discharge - the problem with which many car owners face. This is especially unpleasant if this happens beyond the city where there is no access to civilization. So that this does not happen, motorists can purchase a ready-made charger, but you can make a similar charger for the car battery with your own hands. Especially since it does not take a lot of time and save a lot of money.
Read more about how to make such a device will be discussed in this article. The material provides detailed instructions, describes the entire process of step bypass with visual schemes and drawings. And also contains the main schemes charger for the car battery, where they are used and for what is necessary, a pair of useful videos is added on the topic, attention to the reader is offered an interesting material for downloading.
Homemade memory for the car.
Causes and signs of discharge acb
During the operation of the battery during the operation of the engine there is a permanent recipient of the AKB from the car generator. You can check the charge process by connecting the multimeter to the battery terminals when the engine is running, measuring the charging voltage of the car battery. The charge is considered normal if the voltage on the terminals is from 13.5 to 14.5 volts.
Table of the level of charges of the battery.
What should be the minimum voltage of the battery?
The voltage of a normally charged battery during the parking lot should be at least 12.5 volts. In the event that the voltage is less than 11.5 volts, the engine motor may not start during the start.
For a complete charge, you need to drive on a car at least 30 kilometers or about half an hour in the city's city rhythm. Reasons for the discharge of the battery: